A list of various-titled chemicals that give cannabis and other plants their aroma and taste, as well as a variety of different species, such as trees. Terpenes modulate the effects of cannabinoids by interacting with them. Terpenes are produced within cannabis trichomes and are strongly affected by the spectrum and amount of light exposure.
According to research, terpenes are five-carbon isoprene units linked together to form a wide variety of skeletons. These fundamental chemical “skeletons” are then activated by various enzymes to create effects.
More About Terpenes
Terpenes are aromatic chemicals that give each cannabis variety its own distinct aroma. The pleasant odors and tastes of marijuana that we enjoy after smoking are caused by terpenes. Because each cannabis strain has a distinct terpene content, it has its own unique fragrance. Whether you smoke flower, dab concentrates, or vaporize either product, terpenes help to produce delicious citrus, diesel, woody, pine, skunky, and coffee-like fragrances on your nose.
Why Does the Plant Produce Terpenes?
Terpenes are plant chemicals that act as natural pesticides. They’re also important for a plant’s growth and oxygenation. Given their purposes, it makes sense that some terpenes play a role in human immunological protection. Terpenes appear to be providing immunological benefit in both those who consume these fragrant compounds and the plants that make them.
There are more than 200 different terpenes in the cannabis plant, but most of them are present at only trace levels that testing laboratories can’t identify. So, why does the cannabis plant produce so many?
Terpene variety happens for a number of reasons. Terpenes can be generated from the same rudimentary structure by terpene synthases (TPSs), which may generate many terpenes from the same starting point or create pathways for the synthesis of whole new terpenes.
Finally, it’s possible that terpenes will continue to diversify in order to combat natural predators and build counter-measures in the future. Terpene variety may also be a consequence of human intervention. Alternatively, years of rigorous breeding and selection for numerous characteristics might have resulted in the chemical variations we observe in cannabis plants.
How Growing, Harvest, and Curing Conditions Affect Terpene Expression
Preserving terpenes has never been more important to the cannabis industry than it is today. Terpenes are influenced by a number of elements, including growing, harvesting, and curing conditions. Indoor cannabis farming provides greater control over environment variables that either boost or repress the plant’s terpene expression. Indoor growers will become hydroponists, producers of plants in a system of nutrients and water rather than dirt.
Terpenes are not able to express in a hydroponic garden. The process of growing in regular soil is a simpler approach to create a strong terpene profile than doing so in a hydroponics system. Overfertilization can suppress terpenes by feeding the plants more nutrients, which
Producers who want to create a strong terpene profile in their plants should not pick them too soon or too late. Early harvests can harm trichomes, preventing them from reaching maximal cannabinoid and terpene development. Trichomes that have been harvested incorrectly will be pale, translucent, and faint on the plant’s surface. They’ll also be filled with terpenes.
When creating terpene-rich cannabis, there are a few other things to consider. Maintaining the proper temperature (77-80 degrees Fahrenheit, or 25-26.67 degrees Celsius, during the day and roughly 7-10 degrees Fahrenheit colder at night) while growing may help minimize terpene evaporation. Finally, being as gentle as possible with cannabis flower throughout cultivation raises the chance of producing a terpene-rich end result.
Cannabis has a unique smell. Some people find it unpleasant and overwhelming, while others think of it as relaxing and pleasant. Terpenes are the chemical compounds responsible for the fragrance and flavor of marijuana.
Terpenes contribute to the flavor and fragrance of a variety of cannabis strains, some having fruity and sweet characteristics while others smelling and tasting like lavender. Some strains, on the other hand, have a cheesy odor. It’s not only about the scent, though.
Terpenes are a fascinating collection of chemicals with various medicinal effects. There are at least 80-100 terpenes unique to cannabis, and their interactions with other compounds and cannabinoids go toward making up the marijuana plant as we know it’s overall success.
What are terpenes and what is their use?
Terpenes are organic chemicals produced by most plants and some insects, such as swallowtail butterflies and termites. Terpenoids, which are oxygenated versions of terpenes, are sometimes known as terpene.
The easiest method to understand them is to conceive of them as volatile aromatic molecules. The distinction between these chemicals and other types of essential oils is that they flavor the plants.
Terpenes are formed via isoprene, which replicates to produce terpenes. These chemicals perform two essential roles in every plant’s life: defense of the flowers against predators and resin creation.
Terpenes are a significant component of resin and are frequently utilized in the manufacture of essential oils, making them an ideal match for health and beauty items. As a result, terpenes have been used in both scent as well as conventional and alternative medicine. They’re mostly utilized in aromatherapy, but they can also be produced chemically as fragrances and scents, as well as additives in food.
Terpenes are also found in tobacco, cannabis, and several other plants. Natural rubber is made of terpenes as well as many steroids. It wouldn’t hurt to note that an organic and entirely natural maple syrup has about 300 terpenes, making it delicious in the first place.
But what about cannabis?
Because of terpenes, each strain has its own unique scent and flavor. They not only provide each strain with its distinct odor and taste, but they also assist to regulate how we absorb cannabinoids.
How terpenes work with cannabinoids?
The flower is usually what we consume from cannabis.
Cannabis flower, like any other flower, has its own unique scent.
There are approximately 120 terpenes in cannabis, each with a different ratio of cannabinoids and non-cannabinoid components. They coexist with THC and CBD (occasionally even assisting them), but they are not intoxicating like THC.
While each strain’s terpene profile is distinct, many of them include similar chemicals. Some terpenes are found in various plants, while others are cannabis-specific. However, it isn’t only about the fragrance. Terpenes have medicinal properties and may aid in the therapeutic effects of plant medicines:
- Cannabidiol works in tandem with our endocannabinoid system to assist cannabinoids to enter the circulation, exhibiting what is known as the entourage effect.
- Cannabigerol, like cannabidiol (CBD), aids in the absorption and transportation of cannabinoids.
- Cannabis contains a chemical called delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-8 THC), which is also found in lemons and melons. It causes the release of serotonin, which has an impact on how cannabis makes us feel. These terpenes might have an impact on neurotransmitters in our brains, therefore different strains may have varied mood-lifting effects as a result of this.
Terpenes and the “Entourage Effect” explained
The “Entourage Effect” is a term used to describe the biological interaction between cannabinoids and other chemicals such as flavonoids, as well as terpenes.
Terpenes, according to Dr. Paul Lucas and other experts, work together to produce “the magic or the potency of cannabis as a whole.” Terpenes combine with cannabinoids such as CBD and THC to create a synergy that results in greater potency and efficacy than either one would on its own.
Cannabinoids and terpenes’ synergy as a result of this symbiosis increases cannabinoid absorption, deals with bacterial resistance mechanisms, and reduces negative effects.
Research on medical properties of terpenes in cannabis
Some terpenes are ideal for reducing stress while others are great for relaxing. Some improve attention while others aid with relaxation. Because you’ll have a lot of options to consider,
Myrcene makes us drowsy, while limonene revives our spirits. Terpenes have been the subject of significant scientific study in recent years.
Jürg Gertsch was the first to discover that beta-caryophyllene binds to CB2 receptors and dubbed it “a nutritional cannabinoid.” He also came to the conclusion that all foods containing this terpene are necessary for human nutrition.
Cannabis contains a variety of cannabinoids, including cannabidiol. Cannabinoids other than cannabidiol have been investigated with various endpoints and continue to be studied. Terpenes, for example, are becoming more well-known among doctors as the use of cannabis grows in popularity. (3)
“It’s similar to taking a cannabis-derived pain medication that targets the endocannabinoid system without THC,” says Dr. David Casarett, a prominent cannabis researcher and author.
Respiratory illnesses like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been shown in additional research to be harmed by Cannabis sativa, particularly its terpenes and terpenoids. That isn’t even close to the full story, though. We’ll get into the health advantages of terpenes later on.